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Switch to Digital TV Slows Down


The plan to switch to digital television in the United States has been in the works for years. But with the deadline in February 2009, some states have stalled the process.

The United States Congress has postponed the deadline for all states to go digital until the middle of June 2009, though hundreds of stations managed to make the change on time for the original deadline, while some even had permission to turn off their analog signals early.

The problems thought to accompany the switch were not seen everywhere – big cities in California made the switch with minimal problems, as fears surrounding blank screens and pixelated images refused to materialise. According to some reports in the media, the number of complaints that followed the switch was much lower than anticipated.

Months of public service announcements and outreach has left many people aware that the programming would be switching over. The Federal Communications Commission had previously spent months touring seniors and community centres to discuss the change. What’s more, according to a recent study, about five million households – totalling just over four per cent of the country’s population – were unprepared for the switch.

Television owners who already receive cable or satellite TV service will be unaffected by the switch, as are those who have recently purchased new television sets that can receive digital signals. It’s those who own older television sets that will be affected, as they have to purchase a digital converter box.

Recently, an agency which provided vouchers for converter boxes was reported to have run out of money in January, and many retailers sold out ahead of time, leaving many owners unable to watch TV. These difficulties led the government to postpone the absolute deadline for all stations to have switched over to digital. Countries around the world have been following suit, with the United Kingdom planning to make the full switch before the end of 2012.

The benefits of digital television have been touted, as the switch increases the number of channels available. Some digital programmes will become more interactive, and more services will be available to those with visual and audio impairments. Those with digital television will also have more options when it comes to watching shows no matter when they air. With advancements in digital TV recording, services like Sky Plus provide the option of digitally recording shows for viewers to watch at a later date through devices like Sky boxes.

Of course, it may take time for the digital switchover to be complete, but there are clearly many advantages for television owners when it eventually takes place.

Adam Singleton writes for a digital marketing agency. This article has been commissioned by a client of said agency. This article is not designed to promote, but should be considered professional content.

Love In The Verse Studies
digital television
Image by NMCIL
digital collage for my TVIcons & Film Strips – all characters from The Buffyverse belong to Joss Whedon, etc. – these images are done strictly for the enjoyment of the fans of his work – Best viewed large.

I had posted, then deleted this image as I do not want to take up too much space here – other viewers seem to be liking this image, so I thought I would post it back – hope you like it.

check out the other Whedon Sets here and remember the Hollywood Star project for Joss Whedon.

link to set:

Switch Your Own TV From Analog To Digital Television


One of the hottest TV sets that we have is no other than the digital TV. It is now an open secret that change is being caused by the movement of people televisions regular analog to digital television. In some years, only digital and cable TV has been available for good. The madness of the new digital innovation is that everyone are forcing themselves to accept the change. As for the old ones, we will have the option to simply change their colors and nothing else. It’s where the digital television dominates the competition to others for good.

What happens if you say goodbye to your old analog TV viewing for good? As long you have a digital TV, it’s not a problem for you because of its features and quality. Some people should have the right tools to watch TV shows in good quality mode. It’s a choice that we make in order to be provided with quality entertainment and fun at home. The digital TV is considered to be the latest trend today.

Another term for VoIP will be no other than the internet telephony. It is a service where you can send voice, SMS, fax and other voice-messaging applications through the use of internet. It also employs session control protocols for us to set up the call tear-down which includes the audio codec. This is just one example of technology that were attracted by most customers or subscribers around the world or within the local area. What about the digital television? What makes them dominate the entire market of televisions in your respective areas? It is just pretty simple, you know?

It lets you add more than one video tuner and it remains a collection of reputable companies like no other. Due to advanced recording technology, a special program and another program that can be seen by most users will not miss anything. As you can see, there are numbers of important benefits and more choices for you to stick with digital television. If you aren’t satisfied with the decision after receiving their bundles, you might feel that this is more than just an analog type. There is no no better way for you to enjoy watching TV with less money to buy new equipment. Another thing is that you need to have the positive side or effect, because of the low-bandwidth and space feature for them to put some extra things around them.

This is something that you could ever imagine in owning a digital television from any service provider in your area. There are some companies that can be trusted by various buyers, but some of them are not. You need to be sure that you take extra care of your budget in subscribing with a local digital television provider. Unlike regular analog television sets that are old-school type, it’s time for us to face the future of television. With the digital tuners, it helps you decide to switch and be attracted with their services for good.

For more information about cable TV, kindly check out the best Comcast prices today.

Inside The Brain
digital television
Image by Visual Artist Frank Bonilla
This is one of two identical color processors inside your brain. One is behind each eyeball, and is about the size of a golfball.
This processor is what allows you to see your television in 1080P!

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Digital TV: Why Make The Switch?


Mention TV market developments, and digital television is sure to dominate the conversation in no time. Digital is undeniably the new wave of innovation in the realm of television. But what’s all the hype about, and is it worth making the switch from analog television?

There are various reasons as to why so many UK TV consumers are opting for digital television. For starters, digital TV channels take up less bandwidth – which, in turn, means that broadcasters can offer consumers a greater number of digital channels in the same space. Moreover, those who opt for digital TV are usually given the option to utilise various other services, including digital interactivity, multimedia, electronic programme guides, language and subtitle options, or multiplexing – where more than one programme is allowed on the same channel. This, of course, is all in addition to the high-definition quality offered with digital television. Digital television offers images made up of smaller pixels – and more of them – compared to analog TV. So images are crisper, cleaner and more detailed.

Digital TV is also advantageous in that its signals react less fiercely to interference than analog signals. For instance, interference with analog signals might result in the ghosting of images and disruptive noises. However, digitised signals won’t experience problems like these because digital TV tuners and converter boxes receive numeric information by the antenna. The decoder only requires enough information to assemble a picture – and the only way the process can fail is if the tuner or converter box doesn’t receive substantial information from the antenna. Even then, the interference is minimal.

With so many advantages to digital TV, it makes sense that so many UK TV viewers are making the switch from analog television. But with all the digital TV options available on the market, it could be difficult to choose a service that’s right for you. If you’re considering switching from analog to digital, keep in mind that there are various methods to effectively narrow your options to fit your needs.

To start, keep in mind that many digital television offers might include various other services as part of a package – so explore all package offerings, keeping an eye out for services that might benefit you most. For example, you can find digital TV packages which give you the option of choosing the types of channels you receive – so you’ll gain access to the programmes you love the most.

And finally, you’ll want to pay close attention to pricing. Make sure you take note of any minimum contract requirements or pre-planned changes in monthly charges, so you know exactly how much you’ll be paying for your digital TV service.

It may take time to find the right service that you are happy with; therefore, it is important to take your time to fully understand the benefits that digital TV can offer you before you make the switch.

Victoria Cochrane writes for a digital marketing agency. This article has been commissioned by a client of said agency. This article is not designed to promote, but should be considered professional content.

TLF’s – Two Faces ala Grande
digital television
Image by NMCIL
digital collage from TV/film shots – These are from my new series called Film Strips – Visit my artwork site at www.domney.com & www.whedonworld.com

What Digital TV service should you switch to ?


Digital TV has transformed the way that we view television programmes with more choice than ever before via more providers and more choice of delivery method and interactive features. It can be received from a terrestrial broadcast using an aerial or a satellite dish, cable, phone line or the internet. There are also programmes that are available with and without a monthly subscription or contract. The type of programmes that you will receive will depend on how much you are willing to pay and the type of programmes that you want to view. On top of this there are also high definition channels that are free or monthly subscription charges or contracts.

There are free channels available from the BBCs and ITVs Freesat, Skys Freesat, Freeview, and Virgin Medias cable service if you rent a phone line. Monthly subscription services are available from Sky Digital, Virgin Media, BT Vision and Tiscali TV.


Freeview digital television broadcasts are replacing the normal analogue terrestrial television broadcasts received by an aerial throughout the UK. To receive Freeview you will first of all need to be in an area where it is available and then you will have to have a suitable aerial and either a Freeview set top box or a television with freeView built in. Apart from having to pay the UK television licence Freeview is free of any other charges and offers 48 channels of television and 24 channels of radio.

The much publicised Digital Switch Over involves using the Freeview digital channels instead of the old analogue channels which are being switched off region by region around the UK. This process will be completed by about 2012. As this happens any equipment that doesnt have digital tuner will need an external set top box or they will be obsolete. This includes Video Recorders, DVD recorders and Televisions. Alternatively you may decide to replace them with new models that have built in Freeview tuners.

The Digital Switch Over might not affect you if you are currently receiving all of your television programmes via Freesat, BT Vision, or Tiscali in which case you wont need to do anything.

Top Up TV

It is possible to add additional subscription channels to the free channels that are available on Freeview with Top Up TV via your aerial. It doesnt require any additional equipment other than the card that slots in to the card slot on your existing PVR set top box. It costs just 9.99 per month without any contract tie in. There is a Movie channel, a sports channel and an on demand channel of programmes that are automatically downloaded to your set top PVR for you to watch at your convenience.

Virgin Medias Cable TV

Cable television by Virgin Media is only available in a limited number of areas. A basic TV package of 45 channels are available free of charge if your phone line is provided by Virgin Media. Various packages are available up to the 19.50 (with Virgin Phone Line) per month package which has 165 channels. Every television that you want to watch cable on will need a Virgin set top box. Each additional set top box will incur an additional discounted monthly charge so this could prove to be expensive.

A large library of programmes and films are accessible On Demand when you choose either in standard or high definition. Some of these are accessible free of charge and some are viewable by pay per view.

Sky Digital TV

Sky Digital is available by means of a monthly subscription charge. To receive Sky Digital you will need a satellite dish installing and a Sky set top box. The majority of houses in the UK can receive Sky Digital.

If you live in an apartment block or high rise flats then you might not be allowed to have a dish installed. Also some buildings have planning restrictions that dont permit the installation of satellite dishes. Also you may not be able to have satellite TV if there are any physical obstruction such as a building or Trees that prevents the required line of sight.

The satellite dish is connected to a set top box that is connected to your television set. For every television that you want to watch Sky Digital on you will need an addition set top box and you may need a further satellite dish depending on how many connectors are available on the LNB of the satellite dish. There are also extra costs for each set top box and additional monthly charges which can work out fairly expensive if you have many televisions in your house.

There is usually a charge for providing and installing the satellite dish and the set top box. Sky packages start from 16.50 per month with a free set top box and 60 for the dish and installation offering over 200 channels. If you opt for all the channels available from Sky you will receive over 630 channels of TV and Radio channels at a cost of 46 per month with an installation charge of 60 for a standard box and 30 for Sky Plus set top box. Sky also offers the widest selection of HD channels at an additional cost of 9.75 per month.

If this isnt enough choice then there is also an On Demand Service known as Sky Anytime for watching a small selection of movies, documentaries and entertainment channels that are stored locally on the Sky Plus set top box. Furthermore Sky Box Office offers some of the latest films On Demand for a small additional charge. There is also an on demand service where you can download films to the hard drive on your PC. You can either view them on your PC or you can copy them on to a DVD to watch on the DVD player that is connected to your TV. Alternatively if you have a Media Centre attached to your television then you can stream the movies directly from your PC to your TV.

Freesat Television

There are two versions of Freesat. One is provided by a joint venture of the BBC and ITV and the other is available from Sky. They both need a satellite dish and a set top box however the BBC and ITV version also has the possibility of being viewed by a Freesat compatible television which the Sky version doesnt have. On both options the service is free once you have paid for the satellite dish, installation and the set top box. If there is already a satellite dish on your house that has spare connections on it then you can save on the cost of the satellite dish and installation. Of course the installation of a satellite dish could be restricted by the problems mentioned in the section above about Sky Digital TV.

High definition channels are available free of monthly subscription on the Freesat from the BBC and ITV. To receive HD you will need to make sure that you buy a HD Freesat set top box.

Set top boxes that are compatible with the BBC and ITVs Freesat are available from around 49.99 or 129.99 complete with a dish and installation. There are in excess of 140 channels of programmes of different types that are available without any commitment or monthly subscription. If you want the HD version then you will have to pay 129.99 for the set top box or around 229.99 with satellite dish and installation. If you opt for a Freesat compatible television then you wont require a set top box just a satellite dish.

There are in excess of 240 standard definition television channels on Freesat from Sky, Sky Freesat is obtainable for an initial payment of 75 and then there arent any further payments required. High definition television channels are not available on Skys Freesat.

BT Vision Television

BT Vision is provided using a broadband connection and a BT Home Hub router which is then wirelessly connected to a wireless receiver which is connected to your television. The BT vision television service offers Freeview and an on demand service of entertainment and movies. If you already use BTs broadband then the Home Hub Router is supplied without any cost.

You can either pay for each programme that you watch or pay a monthly subscription for a bundle of programmes. If you dont have BT broadband there is a basic charge for the set top TV box of 29.36 and installation at 29.36. With the minimum package there arent any monthly charges you only pay for what you watch. There are also options to pay a monthly charge for a bundle of programmes including 40 channels of Freeview, sports, kids programmes, music and some films, but you then pay extra for additional films. The bundles are from 13.70 per month to 19.57 per month.

Tiscali TV

Tiscali television is only available in certain areas of the country via a phone line with broadband and possibly an aerial. The Tiscali television service offers in excess of 70 channels of digital TV channels and digital radio channels and in excess of 1000 on demand programmes, Movies and Music. The basic offering starts from 19.99 per month and includes 8Mb broadband and telephone line rental with on demand movies charged per view.

Fetch TV

Fetch television is another non subscription service that provides 48 channels of Freeview and access to over a 1000 standard definition and high definition on demand programmes and films that can be downloaded when you choose and streamed to your television. You will need a Fetch television PVR which is a Freeview box and high definition media centre, a computer and broadband. The media centre allows you to access films that you have downloaded to your PC and play them on your television. Fetch television set top boxes start from just under 130.

IP Television and Television On Demand

There are many programmes and movies that can be downloaded via broadband to your PC and then you can copy them to a DVD disc or it can be wirelessly streamed to a media centre that is connected to your television. There are high definition programmes and films that can down loaded via the internet. Television broadcasters such as the BBC, Sky, ITV and many other UK and Worldwide television companies now have content that is available to be downloaded when you choose. Some of this content is free of charge and some chargeable.


The options are almost endless with so many choices. Some of these choices may not be an option but nonetheless the choice is greater than ever before with delivery by Cable, Satellite Dish, Phone Line, Broadband, and Aerial. Whether you are prepared to pay a monthly charge may narrow the options but if you are then you also have to decide if you are prepared to pay extra for HD television broadcasts. IP television offers an interesting possibility but is restricted by our creaking copper cables ability to deliver the content fast enough and reliably enough. To benefit from all of the advantages of Digital Television you will also need a high definition LCD television or Plasma television.

For almost 2 decades Armadeus Cornelius has accumulated a wealth of knowledge in the electronics sector. For more details on Digital TV go to his site http://www.digitaldirect.co.uk . If you want to save money then go to refurbished hdtv or sony lcd tvs

Army Photography Contest – 2007 – FMWRC – Arts and Crafts – A Plumpish Proportion
digital television
Image by familymwr
Army Photography Contest – 2007 – FMWRC – Arts and Crafts – A Plumpish Proportion

Photo By: SSG Robert Stewart

To learn more about the annual U.S. Army Photography Competition, visit us online at www.armymwr.com

U.S. Army Arts and Crafts History

After World War I the reductions to the Army left the United States with a small force. The War Department faced monumental challenges in preparing for World War II. One of those challenges was soldier morale. Recreational activities for off duty time would be important. The arts and crafts program informally evolved to augment the needs of the War Department.
On January 9, 1941, the Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson, appointed Frederick H. Osborn, a prominent U.S. businessman and philanthropist, Chairman of the War Department Committee on Education, Recreation and Community Service.
In 1940 and 1941, the United States involvement in World War II was more of sympathy and anticipation than of action. However, many different types of institutions were looking for ways to help the war effort. The Museum of Modern Art in New York was one of these institutions. In April, 1941, the Museum announced a poster competition, “Posters for National Defense.” The directors stated “The Museum feels that in a time of national emergency the artists of a country are as important an asset as men skilled in other fields, and that the nation’s first-rate talent should be utilized by the government for its official design work… Discussions have been held with officials of the Army and the Treasury who have expressed remarkable enthusiasm…”
In May 1941, the Museum exhibited “Britain at War”, a show selected by Sir Kenneth Clark, director of the National Gallery in London. The “Prize-Winning Defense Posters” were exhibited in July through September concurrently with “Britain at War.” The enormous overnight growth of the military force meant mobilization type construction at every camp. Construction was fast; facilities were not fancy; rather drab and depressing.
In 1941, the Fort Custer Army Illustrators, while on strenuous war games maneuvers in Tennessee, documented the exercise The Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Feb. 1942), described their work. “Results were astonishingly good; they showed serious devotion …to the purpose of depicting the Army scene with unvarnished realism and a remarkable ability to capture this scene from the soldier’s viewpoint. Civilian amateur and professional artists had been transformed into soldier-artists. Reality and straightforward documentation had supplanted (replaced) the old romantic glorification and false dramatization of war and the slick suavity (charm) of commercial drawing.”

“In August of last year, Fort Custer Army Illustrators held an exhibition, the first of its kind in the new Army, at the Camp Service Club. Soldiers who saw the exhibition, many of whom had never been inside an art gallery, enjoyed it thoroughly. Civilian visitors, too, came and admired. The work of the group showed them a new aspect of the Army; there were many phases of Army life they had never seen or heard of before. Newspapers made much of it and, most important, the Army approved. Army officials saw that it was not only authentic material, but that here was a source of enlivenment (vitalization) to the Army and a vivid medium for conveying the Army’s purposes and processes to civilians and soldiers.”
Brigadier General Frederick H. Osborn and War Department leaders were concerned because few soldiers were using the off duty recreation areas that were available. Army commanders recognized that efficiency is directly correlated with morale, and that morale is largely determined from the manner in which an individual spends his own free time. Army morale enhancement through positive off duty recreation programs is critical in combat staging areas.
To encourage soldier use of programs, the facilities drab and uninviting environment had to be improved. A program utilizing talented artists and craftsmen to decorate day rooms, mess halls, recreation halls and other places of general assembly was established by the Facilities Section of Special Services. The purpose was to provide an environment that would reflect the military tradition, accomplishments and the high standard of army life. The fact that this work was to be done by the men themselves had the added benefit of contributing to the esprit de corps (teamwork, or group spirit) of the unit.
The plan was first tested in October of 1941, at Camp Davis, North Carolina. A studio workshop was set up and a group of soldier artists were placed on special duty to design and decorate the facilities. Additionally, evening recreation art classes were scheduled three times a week. A second test was established at Fort Belvoir, Virginia a month later. The success of these programs lead to more installations requesting the program.
After Pearl Harbor was bombed, the Museum of Modern Art appointed Mr. James Soby, to the position of Director of the Armed Service Program on January 15, 1942. The subsequent program became a combination of occupational therapy, exhibitions and morale-sustaining activities.
Through the efforts of Mr. Soby, the museum program included; a display of Fort Custer Army Illustrators work from February through April 5, 1942. The museum also included the work of soldier-photographers in this exhibit. On May 6, 1942, Mr. Soby opened an art sale of works donated by museum members. The sale was to raise funds for the Soldier Art Program of Special Services Division. The bulk of these proceeds were to be used to provide facilities and materials for soldier artists in Army camps throughout the country.
Members of the Museum had responded with paintings, sculptures, watercolors, gouaches, drawings, etchings and lithographs. Hundreds of works were received, including oils by Winslow Homer, Orozco, John Kane, Speicher, Eilshemius, de Chirico; watercolors by Burchfield and Dufy; drawings by Augustus John, Forain and Berman, and prints by Cezanne, Lautrec, Matisse and Bellows. The War Department plan using soldier-artists to decorate and improve buildings and grounds worked. Many artists who had been drafted into the Army volunteered to paint murals in waiting rooms and clubs, to decorate dayrooms, and to landscape grounds. For each artist at work there were a thousand troops who watched. These bystanders clamored to participate, and classes in drawing, painting, sculpture and photography were offered. Larger working space and more instructors were required to meet the growing demand. Civilian art instructors and local communities helped to meet this cultural need, by providing volunteer instruction and facilities.
Some proceeds from the Modern Museum of Art sale were used to print 25,000 booklets called “Interior Design and Soldier Art.” The booklet showed examples of soldier-artist murals that decorated places of general assembly. It was a guide to organizing, planning and executing the soldier-artist program. The balance of the art sale proceeds were used to purchase the initial arts and crafts furnishings for 350 Army installations in the USA.
In November, 1942, General Somervell directed that a group of artists be selected and dispatched to active theaters to paint war scenes with the stipulation that soldier artists would not paint in lieu of military duties.
Aileen Osborn Webb, sister of Brigadier General Frederick H. Osborn, launched the American Crafts Council in 1943. She was an early champion of the Army program.
While soldiers were participating in fixed facilities in the USA, many troops were being shipped overseas to Europe and the Pacific (1942-1945). They had long periods of idleness and waiting in staging areas. At that time the wounded were lying in hospitals, both on land and in ships at sea. The War Department and Red Cross responded by purchasing kits of arts and crafts tools and supplies to distribute to “these restless personnel.” A variety of small “Handicraft Kits” were distributed free of charge. Leathercraft, celluloid etching, knotting and braiding, metal tooling, drawing and clay modeling are examples of the types of kits sent.
In January, 1944, the Interior Design Soldier Artist program was more appropriately named the “Arts and Crafts Section” of Special Services. The mission was “to fulfill the natural human desire to create, provide opportunities for self-expression, serve old skills and develop new ones, and assist the entire recreation program through construction work, publicity, and decoration.”
The National Army Art Contest was planned for the late fall of 1944. In June of 1945, the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C., for the first time in its history opened its facilities for the exhibition of the soldier art and photography submitted to this contest. The “Infantry Journal, Inc.” printed a small paperback booklet containing 215 photographs of pictures exhibited in the National Gallery of Art.
In August of 1944, the Museum of Modern Art, Armed Forces Program, organized an art center for veterans. Abby Rockefeller, in particular, had a strong interest in this project. Soldiers were invited to sketch, paint, or model under the guidance of skilled artists and craftsmen. Victor d’Amico, who was in charge of the Museum’s Education Department, was quoted in Russell Lynes book, Good Old Modern: An Intimate Portrait of the Museum of Modern Art. “I asked one fellow why he had taken up art and he said, Well, I just came back from destroying everything. I made up my mind that if I ever got out of the Army and out of the war I was never going to destroy another thing in my life, and I decided that art was the thing that I would do.” Another man said to d’Amico, “Art is like a good night’s sleep. You come away refreshed and at peace.”
In late October, 1944, an Arts and Crafts Branch of Special Services Division, Headquarters, European Theater of Operations was established. A versatile program of handcrafts flourished among the Army occupation troops.
The increased interest in crafts, rather than fine arts, at this time lead to a new name for the program: The “Handicrafts Branch.”
In 1945, the War Department published a new manual, “Soldier Handicrafts”, to help implement this new emphasis. The manual contained instructions for setting up crafts facilities, selecting as well as improvising tools and equipment, and basic information on a variety of arts and crafts.
As the Army moved from a combat to a peacetime role, the majority of crafts shops in the United States were equipped with woodworking power machinery for construction of furnishings and objects for personal living. Based on this new trend, in 1946 the program was again renamed, this time as “Manual Arts.”
At the same time, overseas programs were now employing local artists and craftsmen to operate the crafts facilities and instruct in a variety of arts and crafts. These highly skilled, indigenous instructors helped to stimulate the soldiers’ interest in the respective native cultures and artifacts. Thousands of troops overseas were encouraged to record their experiences on film. These photographs provided an invaluable means of communication between troops and their families back home.
When the war ended, the Navy had a firm of architects and draftsmen on contract to design ships. Since there was no longer a need for more ships, they were given a new assignment: To develop a series of instructional guides for arts and crafts. These were called “Hobby Manuals.” The Army was impressed with the quality of the Navy manuals and had them reprinted and adopted for use by Army troops. By 1948, the arts and crafts practiced throughout the Army were so varied and diverse that the program was renamed “Hobby Shops.” The first “Interservice Photography Contest” was held in 1948. Each service is eligible to send two years of their winning entries forward for the bi-annual interservice contest. In 1949, the first All Army Crafts Contest was also held. Once again, it was clear that the program title, “Hobby Shops” was misleading and overlapped into other forms of recreation.
In January, 1951, the program was designated as “The Army Crafts Program.” The program was recognized as an essential Army recreation activity along with sports, libraries, service clubs, soldier shows and soldier music. In the official statement of mission, professional leadership was emphasized to insure a balanced, progressive schedule of arts and crafts would be conducted in well-equipped, attractive facilities on all Army installations.
The program was now defined in terms of a “Basic Seven Program” which included: drawing and painting; ceramics and sculpture; metal work; leathercrafts; model building; photography and woodworking. These programs were to be conducted regularly in facilities known as the “multiple-type crafts shop.” For functional reasons, these facilities were divided into three separate technical areas for woodworking, photography and the arts and crafts.
During the Korean Conflict, the Army Crafts program utilized the personnel and shops in Japan to train soldiers to instruct crafts in Korea.
The mid-1950s saw more soldiers with cars and the need to repair their vehicles was recognized at Fort Carson, Colorado, by the craft director. Soldiers familiar with crafts shops knew that they had tools and so automotive crafts were established. By 1958, the Engineers published an Official Design Guide on Crafts Shops and Auto Crafts Shops. In 1959, the first All Army Art Contest was held. Once more, the Army Crafts Program responded to the needs of soldiers.
In the 1960’s, the war in Vietnam was a new challenge for the Army Crafts Program. The program had three levels of support; fixed facilities, mobile trailers designed as portable photo labs, and once again a “Kit Program.” The kit program originated at Headquarters, Department of Army, and it proved to be very popular with soldiers.
Tom Turner, today a well-known studio potter, was a soldier at Ft. Jackson, South Carolina in the 1960s. In the December 1990 / January 1991 “American Crafts” magazine, Turner, who had been a graduate student in art school when he was drafted, said the program was “a godsend.”
The Army Artist Program was re-initiated in cooperation with the Office of Military History to document the war in Vietnam. Soldier-artists were identified and teams were formed to draw and paint the events of this combat. Exhibitions of these soldier-artist works were produced and toured throughout the USA.
In 1970, the original name of the program, “Arts and Crafts”, was restored. In 1971, the “Arts and Crafts/Skills Development Program” was established for budget presentations and construction projects.
After the Vietnam demobilization, a new emphasis was placed on service to families and children of soldiers. To meet this new challenge in an environment of funding constraints the arts and crafts program began charging fees for classes. More part-time personnel were used to teach formal classes. Additionally, a need for more technical-vocational skills training for military personnel was met by close coordination with Army Education Programs. Army arts and crafts directors worked with soldiers during “Project Transition” to develop soldier skills for new careers in the public sector.
The main challenge in the 1980s and 90s was, and is, to become “self-sustaining.” Directors have been forced to find more ways to generate increased revenue to help defray the loss of appropriated funds and to cover the non-appropriated funds expenses of the program. Programs have added and increased emphasis on services such as, picture framing, gallery sales, engraving and trophy sales, etc… New programs such as multi-media computer graphics appeal to customers of the 1990’s.
The Gulf War presented the Army with some familiar challenges such as personnel off duty time in staging areas. Department of Army volunteer civilian recreation specialists were sent to Saudi Arabia in January, 1991, to organize recreation programs. Arts and crafts supplies were sent to the theater. An Army Humor Cartoon Contest was conducted for the soldiers in the Gulf, and arts and crafts programs were set up to meet soldier interests.
The increased operations tempo of the ‘90’s Army has once again placed emphasis on meeting the “recreation needs of deployed soldiers.” Arts and crafts activities and a variety of programs are assets commanders must have to meet the deployment challenges of these very different scenarios.
The Army arts and crafts program, no matter what it has been titled, has made some unique contributions for the military and our society in general. Army arts and crafts does not fit the narrow definition of drawing and painting or making ceramics, but the much larger sense of arts and crafts. It is painting and drawing. It also encompasses:
* all forms of design. (fabric, clothes, household appliances, dishes, vases, houses, automobiles, landscapes, computers, copy machines, desks, industrial machines, weapon systems, air crafts, roads, etc…)
* applied technology (photography, graphics, woodworking, sculpture, metal smithing, weaving and textiles, sewing, advertising, enameling, stained glass, pottery, charts, graphs, visual aides and even formats for correspondence…)
* a way of making learning fun, practical and meaningful (through the process of designing and making an object the creator must decide which materials and techniques to use, thereby engaging in creative problem solving and discovery) skills taught have military applications.
* a way to acquire quality items and save money by doing-it-yourself (making furniture, gifts, repairing things …).
* a way to pursue college credit, through on post classes.
* a universal and non-verbal language (a picture is worth a thousand words).
* food for the human psyche, an element of morale that allows for individual expression (freedom).
* the celebration of human spirit and excellence (our highest form of public recognition is through a dedicated monument).
* physical and mental therapy (motor skill development, stress reduction, etc…).
* an activity that promotes self-reliance and self-esteem.
* the record of mankind, and in this case, of the Army.
What would the world be like today if this generally unknown program had not existed? To quantitatively state the overall impact of this program on the world is impossible. Millions of soldier citizens have been directly and indirectly exposed to arts and crafts because this program existed. One activity, photography can provide a clue to its impact. Soldiers encouraged to take pictures, beginning with WW II, have shared those images with family and friends. Classes in “How to Use a Camera” to “How to Develop Film and Print Pictures” were instrumental in soldiers seeing the results of using quality equipment. A good camera and lens could make a big difference in the quality of the print. They bought the top of the line equipment. When they were discharged from the Army or home on leave this new equipment was showed to the family and friends. Without this encouragement and exposure to photography many would not have recorded their personal experiences or known the difference quality equipment could make. Families and friends would not have had the opportunity to “see” the environment their soldier was living in without these photos. Germany, Italy, Korea, Japan, Panama, etc… were far away places that most had not visited.
As the twenty first century approaches, the predictions for an arts renaissance by Megatrends 2000 seem realistic based on the Army Arts and Crafts Program practical experience. In the April ‘95 issue of “American Demographics” magazine, an article titled “Generation X” fully supports that this is indeed the case today. Television and computers have greatly contributed to “Generation X” being more interested in the visual arts and crafts.
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Are You Ready For The Switch To Digital Television?


Americans have become obsessed with television. After a hard days work, many look forward to stretching out on the couch and watching their favorite sitcom or an exhilarating game on that big screen in the living room. It has become so much of an obsession for some, that many do not know how to entertain themselves if there is, for instance, a power outage.

Despite this obsession, many Americans are not prepared for the switch to digital television on June 12, and believe it or not, many claim they have not even heard of the digital television transition. The transition requires all televisions to be digital to receive a signal. If a set is not connected to cable, or already digital, a converter box is needed to receive a picture.

The Nielsen Company, a global information and media company, reported that more than 6.5 million American households, which are approximately 5.7 percent of the U.S. population, are not ready for the transition. However, Nielsen reported that number is an improvement of over 1.3 million homes since their last report on December 21, 2008.

On December 21, the number of African Americans unprepared was 10.8 percent; the number of Hispanics unprepared was 11.5 percent; the number of Asians unprepared was 8.1 percent; and the number for Whites was 6.8 percent. In addition, 9.9 percent of those under age 35 were unprepared and 5.2 percent of those over age 55 were unprepared.

“Nielsen has been preparing for the transition to digital television for more than two years. Because we recognize that accurate and reliable information on consumer behavior is essential to this transition, we’ve been sharing our data with clients, government leaders and the public so they could track progress to digital readiness,” said Nielsen Vice Chairman Susan Whiting.

Nevertheless, the level of preparedness is not equal when limited to various ethnic groups. African Americans lead when it comes to unpreparedness, with 9.9 percent of households reporting that they are not ready based on Nielsen’s latest report on January 18, compared to 9.7 percent of Hispanics, 6.9 percent of Asians and 4.6 percent of Whites. Furthermore, the percentage of unprepared citizens increases with young people with 8.8 percent of people under age 35 not ready, while four percent of people over 55 are not ready.

“There are still millions of people who will be adversely affected because they are not ready for the digital transition,” said Ernest W. Bromley of Nielsen Hispanic/Latino Advisory Council.

Nita Song of Nielsen Asian Pacific American Advisory Council added: “Nielsen has played a key role in reaching out to our underserved communities and helping them understand what needs to be done.”

Albuquerque-Santa Fe, N.M. ranks as the least prepared area in the country for digital television with 12.4 percent unready. However, Hartford and New Haven, Conn. are the most prepared for the digital transition with only 1.8 percent of homes unready.

“It is imperative that we operate at an accelerated pace to educate those who are at the greatest risk of losing their television service–low-income households, large numbers of senior, minority and disabled viewers,” said Cynthia Perkins-Roberts of Nielsen African American Advisory Council. “These viewers rely on traditional television the most and can least afford to lose their television lifelines. We have a responsibility to make sure that these groups whether in our families, churches or communities are equipped and ready for this transition.”

Jeremy James is a writer for ; Regal Mag The preeminent Online Magazine for African American Men. For more information on this subject visit our ; Entertainment Section To read about ; digital television

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